Visited a farm outside Cashel, County Tipperary with over 150 milking cows. The empty rate with a 20 week breeding period was just below 10%. This was considered very acceptable on the basis of the fact that cows had to walk 1.9 kms on a daily basis to a plot of land distanced from the main unit for a period of 2 months during the summer. There were very foot problems amongst the cows and their BCS was excellent overall. The main genotype cow pertaining on the herd was off British Friesian extraction. In my opinion, Holstein cows would not be able to tolerate this type of walking when compared with the British Firesian cow.
Dr.Dan Ryan @ www.cows365.com