The Cirencester site (and many crops locally) has nearly finished flowering, and now looks more green than yellow. Soil temps are at 18 degrees by mid afternoon and nighttime temperatures are in double figures. We finally had some rain last night (6mm) and there's more forecast for tonight and tomorrow morning. There has been germination locally so with the wet weather sclerotinia risk is still high. If you are planning on applying a second sclerotinia spray it needs to go on urgently as they are all protectant rather than eradicant.
Podding levels at the site are high, although some crops in the area have got varaible levels of podding most likely due to pollen beetle, trace element deficiencies and/or drought stress. Where there are alot of blind sites we may now see crops comensate and flower some more, now we have had some rain.
Weather over the last weeks has been nice, sunny, warm and in the last 3 days we have recieved around 24mm of much sought after moisture!
Average soil temp was 11 degrees today.
Crop is well past 50% flowering and will be due its second sclerotinia spray next weekend.
No signs of any problems yet due to the dry conditions that we have had. Next week may be a different story.
Last day of April and the countryside is ablaze with glorious yellow fields moving towards mid flower. Even the later varieties such as DK and Sesame have joined the party. Despite the dry weather, growers remain extremely wary of this disease. Many crops have returned to fields where they were in 2007 when Sclerotinia was last particularly severe. Our nearest test site is in Herefordshire, and is showing reasonable germination, but they have enjoyed more rain than us. Many fields have received early strob based protective/ physiological treatments and the 3 weeks of cover on offer will soon be running out. With the possibility of rain next week, the 2nd spray of these programmes will soon need to be applied. Others have seen the protracted dry spell as a means to revert to a single spray programme. Petal fall has started, but with no apparent adhesion to the lower leaves of the crop, and moisture possibly inhibiting germination, product has remained in the can. However with early crops approaching mid flower, I suspect most untreated crops will have received some protection by the end of next week. We will see which approach was right.....
Soil temperatures now at 15 degrees in the mid morning.
Still very dry out there, there were some showers aound in the area over the easter weekend, but none here. So far in April we have had 1mm of rain, so although the crops are at the mid flowering stage there has been little risk of sclerontinia to date.
There is rain/ showers forcast for this weekend (again), if we get any of these then the risk of sclerotinia is now very high. As sprays are protectant only and will only last for upto three weeks, be ready to apply a second flowering spray if more than 2 weeks has passed since the first one was applied.
Crops seem to be standing up to drought conditions very well, branching very well. Some plots have strong branches at about 5-10 cm from ground level, meaning that the lowest seed rate plots are looking as thick as the highest seed rate plots. The plots are podding very well but some crops in the area have alot of blind sites at the base of the main raceme, most likely caused by pollen beetle.
Needless to say that it is still very dry.
Soil temperature 12oC and with most forward varieties approaching mid flower and some evidence of early petal fall.
Pollen beetle have been very active locally but at this site which was drilled relatively early the crop has fared better than some others in the area.
Seed weevil found in plots today again but nowhere near threshold levels. Elsewhere in the reion however it looks as though seed weevil is approaching threshold levels and will require treatment (e.g tau-fluvalinate)
The trials site is now at mid flower stage. Crops in the area are mostly at early to mid flower, with the occasional late crop at yellow bud. Pod set seems to be good with only the ocasional blind site which is probably due to pollen beetle.
Soil temps are at 14 degrees and night temps are at 8+ degrees so if we get some moisture the risk of sclerotinia is high. Mid flower sprays are being applied at the moment so will give good protection for the next 2-3 weeks, and will also give physiological benefits as well.
All around the yellow fields are back. The early varieties have raced ahead into flower with this hot weather. Some later crops are hanging back along with varieties such as Sesame & Cabernet,Many crops are returning back to fields where they were with the last bad year..as such the threat must be increasing. We have all conditions in place for germination except for moisture. Crops will almost enter their 2nd week of flower and some applications have gone on. These will be part of a programme, but many other crops will follow this week. We need those petals treated before they start to fall into the crop.
Weather over the last week has been nice, sunny, warm but dry!
Only 5 mm collected this week in the rain gauage and combimed with a wind at times that moisture hasn't had much effect on the crops, although they are needing it.
Average soil temp was 11 degrees today.
Crop at GS Green/Yellow bud.
Varieties include: Temple, Emerson and Krypton.
No signs of any problems yet.
Sclerotia of sclerotinia are still germinating where soils are moist - mainly up the western side of England and in North Yorkshire. In the eastern sector soils are generally too dry for much germination. Heavy rain in the west yesterday (13 April) should keep soils moist for a few days and lead to more germination. This is going to synchronise air-borne spore production with mid-flowering.
Night temperatures have been quite cold recently but where minumum temperatures are above 7C, sclerotinia spores can infect the plant.
Keep tracking the night temperatures if you are tempted to delay your flowering fungicide sprays!
Crop now at early flower with soil temeprature at 10.5oC today (but 14oC last Friday).
Clear difference betweeb varieties inn earliness of flowering. Some sdmall differences between establishment methods. However contrary to some published research there appears to be no affect of row width on earliness of flowering.
Soil Temp at 12oC. DK Cabernet yellow bud, PR46W21 Green bud. Soils too dry for germination at present.
Soil temps was at 13 degrees at 4pm today. The hydrid variety ( CWH132) is just starting to flower. Conventional V1401L is not far behind. The plots and field were sprayed for pollen beetle last week but numbers are starting to build up again. They are unlikely to be a problem here, but backward crops could still be at risk.
Sclerotinia germination has started in some parts of the country, so we are almost at the beginnig of the 'at risk' period but the while the weather is dry risk is low.
The first photo is of the Hybrid variety the second is of the conventional variety
On Monday soil temperatures at the site were 9oC, with the earliest variety at the yellow bud stage and just a few flowers. Since then soil temperatures locally have risen to 11oC and recent showers are likely to have been sufficient that we might now expect some germination.
Crops coming into flower should now be considered to be at risk.
The first sclerotia of sclerotinia have starte to germinate this week where soils are moist. The BASF depot network has germination at sites near Exeter in Devon (12%) and at Malton, North Yorkshire (1%). Some apothecia have also been found in the Hereford area. Soil temperatures have moved above 10C recently in most regions but the extent of germination is related to high soil moisture. In the east and south east, many areas are still too dry for much germination of sclerotia but there could still be some starting under OSR crops.
Many crops are now at the yellow bud stage and a few are at early flowering. Some night temperatures have been above the minumum temperature of 7C for crop infection by air-borne spores. The immediate risk is low because few petals are falling but assume sclerotinia could cause problems later in flowering.
Soil Temp is 9 degrees with crop at green/yellow bud. The first flowers are just starting to open. Pollen bettle numbers have been high this year so an insecticide was added to the green bud spray of trace elements and Metconazole. Photo shows one of the broadcast plots on 1st April, and is fairly typical of the plots.
Soil temeperature 8oC. Crop growth stage 3,1 to 3,6 dpeneding on variety and establishment method.
Light leaf spot easily found on one variety in trial so is being sprayed this week with Proline. Very vigorous crop with green area index of around 3.5 even where seed rate was dropped to 20 seeds/m2 - so PGR (Sunorg Pro) also being applied.
Pollen beetle in the area are rather active and in many crops are above threshold levels
Soil temperature at 10cm depth today was averaging out at 16.0 degrees C.
Daily high air temp today of 17.9 degrees C. Daily Low air temp today of 7.6 degrees C.
The last 7 days (including up to 4pm today) has delivered 2.0 mm of rain, a weekly low point of 0.7 degrees C, a weekly high point of 20.1 degrees C temperature.
The crop has more or less finished flowering. There is the odd flower from a side branch but pod development is well under way and the crop is looking well.
There are no signs of any problems within the crop and unless anything develops, this will be the last blog from this site.
More sclerotinia symptoms are appearing in crops this week. This indicates infection took place in late May and early June. There are main stem lesions at about mid-plant level and some plants with the typical white lesions only on the smaller branches. White leaf lesions and dead leaves are also due to sclerotinia in some cases and these may still spread to the stem. Few plants are dead so you need to check within the crop from below the pod canopy to see symptoms. In a few days, dead plants will show in the pod canopy and will be visible when looking over the top of the crop.
The highest levels of sclerotina still appear to be in the Hereford area and have occasionally reached 30-40% plants affected in untreated situations. There is some stem rot in the east as well now. Fungicides applied during flowerng are giving good control so far. Keep checking crops to see if your spray decisions were appropriate.
Note sclerotia of sclerotinia are still germinating and there is a risk to spring rape and peas in particular if the weather is unsettled.
Soil temperature at 10cm depth today was averaging out at 12.0 degrees C.
Daily high air temp today of 17.5 degrees C. Daily Low air temp today of 8.1 degrees C.
The last 7 days (including up to 4pm today) has delivered 14.4 mm of rain, a weekly low point of 3.4 degrees C, a weekly high point of 19.3 degrees C temperature.
The crop has less than 5% of flowers on the main raceme with the other well into pod development. Side branches are still out in flower, with more starting to finish flowering and start pod development.
Temperatures on the whole have again been better this week with higher daily minimum temperatures and a steadily increasing maximum daily temp. The rain about this eek has meant more petals continue to drop. However, there are no signs of any problems since last weeks report.
Rain at last for the dry east. There are likely to be several sclerotinia infection periods in most areas this week. Many crops are at the end of flowering but there are still petals and other floral debris lodged in the leaf axils. Infection could still occur at this late stage though it unlikely to have a large impact on yield.
Have you checked for sclerotinia stem symptoms recently? There are some young lesions rapidly girdling stems in the Hereford area at the moment but nothing has been reported so far in other regions even at high risk sites.
The current rain will enable sclerotinia toremain active and start threatening spring crops such as spring rape and peas.
Join the debate at the HGCA plots at 'Cereals' this week.
Soil temperature at 10cm depth today was averaging out at 15.5 degrees C.
Daily high air temp today of 14.7 degrees C. Daily Low air temp today of 5.6 degrees C.
The last 7 days (including up to 4pm today) has delivered 4.2 mm of rain, a weekly low point of 3.2 degrees C, a weekly high point of 18.5 degrees C temperature.
The crop has 10 - 20% of flowers on the main raceme with the other 80 - 90% having finished, petals dropped and now pod development has started. Side branches are now well out into flower (50 - 60%), with the odd one starting to finish flowering and start pod development.
Temperatures on the whole have been better this week with some long awaited for sunshine and heat. Very little rain about but there are petals continuing to drop. However, there are no signs of any problems since last weeks report.
Todays Air temperatures are as follows - Min = 12 oC Max = 20oC
Soil temperature remains stable, 13oC at a depth of 10cms
No huge changes in development since last week, sill dry and warm. Had no rain again this week. Yellow apperance of the crop is slowly dying back to green as pods continue to develop.
Soil Temp is now at 13 degrees, daytime temps around 17-20 degrees.
There has been 2 mm of rain in the last week.
Crop has now finished flowering, pod set looks very good with only the occasional blind site. The site is now under severe drought stress with some plots looking like they have lost about 50% of leaf area. Some plots are looking conciderably greener than others, so some treatments seemed to have helped to retain green leaf area. This can be seen in the attached photo, where the left hand plots are much greener than the others.
Soil temperature 13 oC
Air temperature Min 8oC Max 13oC
Following a very hot and dry weekend the remainder of the week has been cooler with some heavy showers of rain. Soils are still dry.
Pods are now developing well, 30-50%
Flowering is prolonged in min til plots due to variations in establishment and pigeon damage. Pollen beetles are still found easily but majority of the plant are past yellow bud stage.
Soil temperature at 10cm depth today was averaging out at 12 degrees C.
Daily high air temp today of 12.6 degrees C. Daily Low air temp today of 0.4 degrees C.
The last 7 days (including up to 4pm today) has delivered 20.8 mm of rain, a weekly low point of 0.0 degrees C, a weekly high point of 25.6 degrees C temperature.
The crop has 30 - 40% of flowers on the main raceme with the other 60 - 70% having finished, petals dropped and now pod development has started. Side branches are now well out into flower, with the odd one starting to finish flowering and start pod development.
Temperatures on the whole have been lower this week than normal. Along with some terrential rain, hail, thunder & lightening, its not what you would be hoping for as we quickly approach June month. And as a result alot of wet petals dropping down through the crop.
Crop has been sprayed with a fungicide and seed weevil numbers are being monitored.
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