17 November 2000



Fancy escaping rain-sodden Britain and heading off on an all-expenses-paid farm tour of

beef farms in Texas or dairy farms in California? farmers weekly has teamed up with

Nuflor from Schering-Plough Animal Health to offer eight of them as prizes in our free-to-

enter winter competition. This is week two; just read on to find out how you enter

HAT are the causes

of pneumonia?

There are two main ones

– the calfs environment

and infectious organisms. But its important to realise that the two interact to affect the incidence and severity of the disease.

Environmental factors such as exposure to draughts stress the calf and weaken its defences, allowing a viral infection to take hold. This further weakens its defences and opens the door for a more serious and damaging bacterial infection to take hold.

What are the main

environmental factors that cause stress in calves?

Sick animals not isolated, mixing groups, transport, exposure to draughts, overstocking, inadequate ventilation, extremes of temperature, poor hygiene/drainage and poor access to feed (see drawing).

What are the infectious organisms?

They can be viruses, mycoplasma or bacteria.


The most common are IBR, BRSV, BVD and Parainfluenza. Viruses produce relatively mild pneumonia but they weaken the calfs natural defences, allowing bacterial infection to take hold. They cannot be killed by antibiotics but may be prevented by vaccination. The relevance of a vaccination programme should be evaluated with your vet and may involve laboratory tests to identify viruses present.


These are bacteria with no cell wall and cause similar damage to Pasteurella.


The most important pneumonia-causing bacteria are Pasteurella haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida and Haemophilus somnus. It is the toxic and inflammatory effects of bacteria that do the most damage.

To minimise lung damage and avoid costly retreatment, its essential that the right antibiotic is used, right from the start – Nuflor is highly effective against the most important pneumonia-causing bacteria with no known resistance.

Now answer question 2.

Left: A good environment is one of the keys to avoiding calf pneumonia.

Below: Watch out for the pneumonia risk factors.


&#8226 New "one shot" administration for convenience.

&#8226 Up to 5 days effective cover.

&#8226 No resistance to main pneumonia causing bacteria.

&#8226 Strictly reserved for farm animal treatment.

&#8226 Safe operator profile.

Question 2:

What are the three types of infectious organism that

can cause pneumonia in calves?

Please keep a note of the answer and use it to fill in

the coupon that will appear on the competition page

in the Dec 8 issue of FW.

1. How are the study tours to either Texas or California to be won? Read the text and then study the question that will be published in each of the FW issues of Nov 10, 17, 24, Dec 1 and 8 There will be a chance to answer all five questions and complete the tiebreaker in the coupon that will appear in the Dec 8 issue.

2. The prize is one of eight places on two study tours, one to Texas and one to California. The tours last five days and the prize includes flights, hotels, meals and transport. No cash alternatives are available.

3. The decision of the judges and of the editor of

farmers weekly will in all matters be final and legally binding. No correspondence can be entered into.

4. The completed entry forms are the property of

farmers weekly and Schering-Plough Animal Health.

5. The competition is open to all farmers, farm

managers and contractors in Great Britain.

6. Closing date for receiving completed coupons is Friday Dec 22. They should be addressed to

farmers weekly/Nuflor competition, farmers weekly, Quadrant House, the Quadrant, Sutton, Surrey

SM2 5AS.

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