Mr King, chief executive of the country’s third-biggest supermarket group, has taken up the two-year presidency from Alastair Sykes, NestleUK chief executive.
He previously spent two years as IGD vice-president.
“There are many opportunities for us to drive change in health and nutrition, sustainability and other areas where we can make a difference for consumers in the challenging economic environment,” Mr King said.
Joanne Denney-Finch, IGD chief executive, said: “I am really pleased to have Justin King as president of IGD. Sainsbury’s is a long-standing member and Justin is a valued supporter.
“His energy and enthusiasm for tackling industry issues will continue to be a real asset to PIC.”